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- Eating contaminated food or fluids
- Eating raw or undercooked shellfish
- Living or traveling in areas where cholera is present
- Having blood group O—nine-fold increase in risk
- Having a compromised immune system
- Having low levels of stomach acid
- Sudden onset of painless, watery diarrhea without blood or pus
- Muscle cramps
Careful Eating Habits
- South America
- Central America
- Eat only well-cooked foods that are served hot
- Avoid all raw or undercooked shellfish
- Avoid salads
- Avoid raw vegetables that you have not peeled yourself
- Carry oral rehydration solution (ORS) and know how to use it if you develop severe diarrhea
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov
World Health Organization http://www.who.int/en
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Manitoba Health Communicable Disease Control Unit http://www.gov.mb.ca/health/publichealth/cdc/index.html
Cholera. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/cholera/index.html. Updated May 3, 2012. Accessed January 7, 2013.
Cholera. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated October 9, 2012. Accessed January 7, 2013.
Farmer P, Almazor CP, et al. Meeting cholera's challenge to Haiti and the world: a joint statement on cholera prevention and care. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5(5):e1145.
Harris JB, Khan AI, et al. Blood group, immunity, and risk of infection with vibrio cholerae in an area of endemity. Infection and Immunity. 2005;73:7422-7427.
Ryan ET. The cholera pandemic, still with us after half a century: time to rethink. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5(1):e1003.
Sack DA, Sack RB, et al. Cholera. Lancet. 2004;363:223-233.
World Health Organization, Cholera: 2010. 2011 Weekly Epidemiological Record. Jul 29;86(31):325-39. Available at http://www.who.int/wer/2011/wer8631.pdf. Accessed January 7, 2013.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 11/2012 -
- Update Date: 11/26/2012 -