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Redmond Regional Medical Center

Retinopathy of Prematurity


Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a rare eye condition. It occurs in infants who are premature or have low birthweight. ROP causes a problem in the retina, the tissue that lines the back of the eye. The blood vessels in the retina grow abnormally.

The abnormal blood vessels can lead to scarring of the retina. In the most serious cases, ROP can lead to a separation of the retina from the back of the eye. In a small number of cases, ROP may cause vision loss or blindness.

Normal Anatomy of the Eye
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The exact cause of ROP is unknown.

Risk Factors

Factors that increase the chance of an infant developing ROP include:

  • Premature birth , especially babies born less than 30 weeks gestation
  • Low birth weight, especially babies weighing less than three pounds
  • Low or fluctuating oxygen levels
  • Respiratory distress
  • Anemia


There are usually no signs of ROP until it reaches a severe stage. Severe ROP may cause:

  • White pupils
  • Abnormal eye movements
  • Crossed eyes (turning toward each other)
  • Amblyopia (lazy eye)


A specialist will screen for ROP if your infant has risk factors such as prematurity and low birth weight. The doctor will use a special eye exam to view the blood vessels in the retina.

The doctor will examine your infant’s eyes every 1-2 weeks until the blood vessels in the retina are fully developed.


Mild ROP will usually heal on its own. Your baby's eye will be examined regularly until the blood vessels heal.

More severe ROP may require treatment to reduce the risk of the retina detaching from the back of the eye. Treatment options include:

  • Cryosurgery—freezing tissue in the eye to prevent the spread of abnormal blood vessels
  • Laser ablation/photocoagulation—a laser stops abnormal blood vessels from growing


The best way to prevent ROP is to prevent premature birth. Good prenatal care will help decrease the risk of premature birth.

Revision Information

  • Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics

  • National Eye Institute

  • Canadian Ophthalmology Society

  • Canadian Pediatric Society

  • Fierson WM, American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Ophthalmology, American Academy of Ophthalmology; American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, American Association of Certified Orthoptists. Screening examination of premature infants for retinopathy of prematurity. Pediatrics. 2013;131(1):189-195.

  • Retinopathy of prematurity. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Updated April 10, 2015. Accessed June 17, 2015.

  • Retinopathy of prematurity. National Eye Institute website, Available at: Accessed June 17, 2015.

The health information in this Health Library is provided by a third party. Redmond Regional Medical Center does not in any way create the content of this information. It is provided solely for informational purposes. It does not constitute medical advice and is not intended to be a substitute for proper medical care provided by a physician. Always consult with your doctor for appropriate examinations, treatment, testing, and care recommendations. Do not rely on information on this site as a tool for self-diagnosis. If you have a medical emergency, call 911.